L-Caine Parenteral-Local


|L-Caine Parenteral-Local

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ANESTHETICS (Parenteral-Local)

Some commonly used brand names are:

In the U.S.—

  • Carbocaine 7
  • Carbocaine with Neo-Cobefrin 7
  • Chirocaine 5
  • Citanest Forte 8
  • Citanest Plain 8
  • Dalcaine 6
  • Dilocaine 6
  • Duranest 4
  • Duranest-MPF 4
  • Isocaine 7
  • L-Caine 6
  • Lidoject-1 6
  • Lidoject-2 6
  • Marcaine 2
  • Marcaine Spinal 2
  • Nesacaine 3
  • Nesacaine-MPF 3
  • Novocain 9
  • Octocaine 6
  • Polocaine 7
  • Polocaine-MPF 7
  • Pontocaine 10
  • Sensorcaine 2
  • Sensorcaine-MPF 2
  • Sensorcaine-MPF Spinal 2
  • Septocaine 1
  • Xylocaine 6
  • Xylocaine-MPF 6
  • Xylocaine-MPF with Glucose 6

In Canada—

  • Astracaine 4% 1
  • Astracaine 4% Forte 1
  • Carbocaine 7
  • Citanest Forte 8
  • Citanest Plain 8
  • Isocaine 2% 7
  • Isocaine 3% 7
  • Marcaine 2
  • Nesacaine-CE 3
  • Novocain 9
  • Octocaine-50 6
  • Octocaine-100 6
  • Polocaine 7
  • Pontocaine 10
  • Sensorcaine 2
  • Sensorcaine Forte 2
  • Ultracaine D-S 1
  • Ultracaine D-S Forte 1
  • Xylocaine 6
  • Xylocaine Test Dose 6
  • Xylocaine 5% Spinal 6

Another commonly used name for lidocaine is lignocaine .


For quick reference, the following anesthetics are numbered to match the corresponding brand names.

This information applies to the following medicines:
1. Articaine (AR-ti-kane)
2. Bupivacaine (byoo-PIV-a-kane)
3. Chloroprocaine (klor-oh-PROE-kane)
4. Etidocaine (e-TI-doe-kane)
5. Levobupivacaine (Lee-voe-byoo-PIV-a-kane)
6. Lidocaine (LYE-doe-kane)§
7. Mepivacaine (me-PIV-a-kane)
8. Prilocaine (PRIL-oh-kane)§
9. Procaine (PROE-kane)
10. Tetracaine (TET-ra-kane)
† Not commercially available in Canada
‡ Generic name product may be available in the U.S.
§ Generic name product may be available in Canada


  • Anesthetic, local


Parenteral-local anesthetics (an-ess-THET-iks) are given by injection to cause loss of feeling before and during surgery, dental procedures (including dental surgery), or labor and delivery. These medicines do not cause loss of consciousness.

These medicines are given only by or under the immediate supervision of a medical doctor or dentist, or by a specially trained nurse, in the doctor"s office or in a hospital.

These medicines are available in the following dosage forms:

  • Parenteral
  • Articaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)
  • Bupivacaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)
  • Chloroprocaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)
  • Etidocaine
    • Injection (U.S.)
  • Levobupivacaine
    • Injection (U.S.)
  • Lidocaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)
  • Mepivacaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)
  • Prilocaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)
  • Procaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)
  • Tetracaine
    • Injection (U.S. and Canada)

Before Receiving This Medicine

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of using the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your medical doctor, dentist, or nurse will make. For local anesthetics, the following should be considered:

Allergies—Tell your medical doctor, dentist, or nurse if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to a local anesthetic or to epinephrine (e.g., Adrenalin). Also tell your medical doctor, dentist, nurse, or pharmacist if you are allergic to any other substances, such as sulfites or other preservatives, especially aminobenzoic acid (also called para-aminobenzoic acid [PABA]).

Pregnancy—Local anesthetics have not been reported to cause birth defects in humans.

Use of a local anesthetic during labor and delivery may rarely cause unwanted effects. These medicines may increase the length of labor by making it more difficult for the mother to bear down (push). They may also cause unwanted effects in the fetus or newborn baby, especially if certain medical problems are present at the time of delivery. Before receiving a local anesthetic for labor and delivery, you should discuss with your doctor the good that this medicine will do as well as the risks of receiving it.

Breast-feeding—It is not known whether local anesthetics pass into breast milk. However, these medicines have not been reported to cause problems in nursing babies.

Children—Children may be especially sensitive to the effects of parenteral-local anesthetics. This may increase the chance of side effects.

Older adults—Elderly people are especially sensitive to the effects of parenteral-local anesthetics. This may increase the chance of side effects.

Other medicines—Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your medical doctor, dentist, or nurse may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. It is very important that you tell the person in charge if you are taking:

  • Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (carteolol [e.g., Cartrol], carvedilol [e.g., Coreg], labetolol [e.g., Normodyne], nadolol [e.g., Corgard], oxprenolol [e.g., Trasicor], penbutolol [e.g., Levatol], pindolol [e.g., Visken], propranolol [e.g., Inderal], sotalol [e.g., Sotacor], timolol [e.g., Blocadren]) or
  • Carteolol (ophthalmic) (e.g., Ocupress) or
  • Levobunolol (ophthalmic) (e.g., Betagan) or
  • Metipranolol (ophthalmic) (e.g., OptiPranolol) or
  • Timolol (ophthalmic) (e.g., Timoptic)—Use of some local anesthetics with these medicines may increase the risk of high blood pressure or a slow heart rate
  • Central nervous system (CNS) depressants (medicines that cause drowsiness)—Use of local anesthetics with these medicines may increase the risk that drowsiness will occur
  • Digoxin (e.g., Lanoxin)—Use of some local anesthetics with this medicine may increase the risk of irregular heartbeats
  • Haloperidol (e.g., Haldol) or
  • Phenothiazines (e.g., Phenergan)—Use of these medicines may reduce the effectiveness of the local anesthetic
  • Tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline [e.g., Elavil], amoxapine [e.g., Asendin], clomipramine [e.g., Anafranil], desipramine [e.g., Norpramin], doxepin [e.g., Sinequan], imipramine [e.g., Tofranil], nortriptyline [e.g., Aventyl], protriptyline [e.g., Vivactil], trimipramine [e.g., Surmontil]) or
  • Maprotiline (e.g., Ludiomil)—Use of some local anesthetics with these medicines may increase the chance of some problems, including high blood pressure and irregular heartbeats
  • Any other medicine, prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]), or
  • ``Street"" drugs, such as amphetamines (``uppers""), barbiturates (``downers""), cocaine (including ``crack""), marijuana, phencyclidine (PCP, ``angel dust""), and heroin or other narcotics—Serious side effects may occur if anyone gives you a local anesthetic without knowing that you have taken another medicine

Other medical problems—The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of local anesthetics. Make sure you tell your medical doctor, dentist, or nurse if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Asthma—Increased chance of allergic-like reactions with use of some local anesthetics
  • Brain infection or tumor or
  • Blood clotting disorders—Increased chance of bleeding with injection of local anesthetics
  • Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes)—Use of local anesthetics can cause stress on your heart if you have diabetes mellitus
  • Heart disease—Use of local anesthetics can worsen some kinds of heart disease
  • History of migraine headaches—Use of local anesthetics can worsen headaches
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) or
  • Hypotension (low blood pressure)—Use of local anesthetics can cause hypotension or hypertension
  • Hyperthyroidism—Use of some local anesthetics can cause stress on your heart if you have hyperthyroidism
  • Kidney disease or
  • Liver disease—Increased chance of side effects
  • Methemoglobinemia—Prilocaine may make this condition worse
  • Peripheral vascular disease—Use of some local anesthetics can make this condition worse or can cause your blood pressure to increase
  • Skin infection or inflammation—Your physician may not want to inject the local anesthetic into infected or inflamed skin because the local anesthetic may not work as well

Proper Use of This Medicine

Dosing—The dose of a local anesthetic will be different for different patients. Your health care professional will decide on the right amount for you, depending on:

  • Your age;
  • Your general physical condition;
  • The reason the local anesthetic is being given; and
  • Other medicines you are taking or will receive before or after the local anesthetic is given.

Precautions After Receiving This Medicine

For patients going home before the numbness or loss of feeling caused by a local anesthetic wears off:

  • During the time that the injected area feels numb, serious injury can occur without your knowing about it. Be especially careful to avoid injury until the anesthetic wears off or feeling returns to the area.
  • If you have received a local anesthetic injection in your mouth, do not chew gum or food while your mouth feels numb. You may injure yourself by biting your tongue or the inside of your cheeks.

Side Effects of This Medicine

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. While you are in the hospital or your medical doctor"s or dentist"s office, your medical doctor, dentist, or nurse will carefully follow the effects of any medicine you have received. However, some effects may not be noticed until later.

Check with your dentist or medical doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common or rare

Bluish lips and fingernails; breathing problems; chest pain; convulsions (seizures); dizziness; drowsiness; fatigue; fever; headache; irregular heartbeat; itching; nausea and/or vomiting; pale skin, troubled breathing, exertional, unusual bleeding or bruising, unusual tiredness or weakness; raised red swellings on the skin, lips, tongue, or in the throat; rapid heart rate; restlessness; unusual tiredness or weakness

Check with your dentist or medical doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common or rare

Back pain; constipation; difficulty in opening the mouth; inability to hold bowel movement and/or urine; loss of sexual function; paralysis of legs; persistent numbness; prolonged numbness or tingling of lips and mouth; shivering; skin rash; tingling or “pins and needles” sensation

Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your medical doctor or dentist.

Revised: 09/06/2000

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